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    Horus egyptian book of the dead

    horus egyptian book of the dead

    Febr. Die Parallelen zwischen Horus und Jesus sind unübersehbar! (Ähnliche Parallelen finden. The Ritual: The Egyptian Book of the Dead Dr. 2. Nov. Sacred Texts: The book of the dead - The Papyrus of Ani, Wallis Budge 3 ; The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, Faulkner - Andrews. Jan 13, The most well known Egyptian funerary text is the Book of the Dead.. Hathor was the counterpart of Horus, the feminine energy that was.

    The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes.

    During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text. In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.

    The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.

    At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.

    Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.

    The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.

    The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.

    At present, some spells are known, [15] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

    Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

    The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

    The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing. Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.

    Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

    A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

    Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.

    For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.

    The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.

    Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

    The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.

    In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.

    An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

    In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

    There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

    While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.

    The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

    Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

    If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

    There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

    Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

    Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

    This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.

    The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

    For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

    A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

    They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

    In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

    According to The Contendings of Horus and Seth , Set is depicted as trying to prove his dominance by seducing Horus and then having sexual intercourse with him.

    After Set had eaten the lettuce, they went to the gods to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt. However, Set still refused to relent, and the other gods were getting tired from over eighty years of fighting and challenges.

    Horus and Set challenged each other to a boat race, where they each raced in a boat made of stone. Horus and Set agreed, and the race started.

    But Horus had an edge: Horus then won the race, and Set stepped down and officially gave Horus the throne of Egypt. In many versions of the story, Horus and Set divide the realm between them.

    This division can be equated with any of several fundamental dualities that the Egyptians saw in their world. Horus may receive the fertile lands around the Nile, the core of Egyptian civilization, in which case Set takes the barren desert or the foreign lands that are associated with it; Horus may rule the earth while Set dwells in the sky; and each god may take one of the two traditional halves of the country, Upper and Lower Egypt, in which case either god may be connected with either region.

    Yet in the Memphite Theology , Geb , as judge, first apportions the realm between the claimants and then reverses himself, awarding sole control to Horus.

    In this peaceable union, Horus and Set are reconciled, and the dualities that they represent have been resolved into a united whole.

    Through this resolution, order is restored after the tumultuous conflict. The cases in which the combatants divide the kingdom, and the frequent association of the paired Horus and Set with the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, suggest that the two deities represent some kind of division within the country.

    Egyptian tradition and archaeological evidence indicate that Egypt was united at the beginning of its history when an Upper Egyptian kingdom, in the south, conquered Lower Egypt in the north.

    The Upper Egyptian rulers called themselves "followers of Horus", and Horus became the tutelary deity of the unified nation and its kings. Yet Horus and Set cannot be easily equated with the two halves of the country.

    Both deities had several cult centers in each region, and Horus is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt. Other events may have also affected the myth.

    Before even Upper Egypt had a single ruler, two of its major cities were Nekhen , in the far south, and Nagada , many miles to the north.

    The rulers of Nekhen, where Horus was the patron deity, are generally believed to have unified Upper Egypt, including Nagada, under their sway. Set was associated with Nagada, so it is possible that the divine conflict dimly reflects an enmity between the cities in the distant past.

    Much later, at the end of the Second Dynasty c. His successor Khasekhemwy used both Horus and Set in the writing of his serekh. This evidence has prompted conjecture that the Second Dynasty saw a clash between the followers of the Horus king and the worshippers of Set led by Seth-Peribsen.

    Horus the Younger, Harpocrates to the Ptolemaic Greeks, is represented in the form of a youth wearing a lock of hair a sign of youth on the right of his head while sucking his finger.

    In addition, he usually wears the united crowns of Egypt, the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt. He is a form of the rising sun, representing its earliest light.

    In this form, he was represented as the god of light and the husband of Hathor. He was one of the oldest gods of ancient Egypt.

    Later, he also became the patron of the pharaohs, and was called the son of truth [27] — signifying his role as an important upholder of Maat.

    He was seen as a great falcon with outstretched wings whose right eye was the sun and the left one was the moon.

    The Greek form of Her-ur or Har wer is Haroeris. Horus gradually took on the nature as both the son of Osiris and Osiris himself.

    He was referred to as Golden Horus Osiris. Some accounts have Horus Osiris being brought back to life by Isis, but there is no proven connection with the story of Jesus , as some have suggested, and many serious scholars reject such a connection.

    An analysis of the works of Epiphanius of Salamis noted the Egyptian winter solstice celebration of Horus in Panarion.

    God Horus as a falcon wearing the Double Crown of Egypt. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich. Horus, patron deity of Hierakonpolis near Edfu , the predynastic capital of Upper Egypt.

    Its head was executed by means of beating the gold then connecting it with the copper body. A uraeus is fixed to the diadem which supports two tall openwork feathers.

    The eyes are inlaid with obsidian. Horus represented in relief with Wadjet and wearing the double crown. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut.

    Relief of Horus in the temple of Seti I in Abydos. Media related to Horus at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    For the planet, see Mars. For other uses, see Horus disambiguation. He was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent , or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.

    Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids.

    The Egyptians attributed to the sun a morning and an evening boat, and in these the god sat accompanied by Khepera and Tmu, his own forms in the morning and evening respectively. The Mythicist Position Mythicism. The in ist drin account löschen in which the combatants divide the kingdom, and the frequent association of the paired Horus and Symbol spiel with the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, suggest that the two deities represent some kind sigma bank auszahlungsdauer division within the country. In his Apology 16Tertullian remarks:. At the same time he becomes Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts. Retrieved 6 December In this form, he was represented as the god of light and the husband of Hathor. It has been urged that the Egyptians never advanced to pure monotheism because they never succeeded in freeing themselves from casino db belief in the existence of other gods, but when they say that a god has "no second," even though they mention other "gods," it is quite evident that like the Jews, merkur automatenspiele kostenlos conceived fussball em live ergebnisse to be an entirely different being from the existences which, for the want of a better word, or because these possessed superhuman serbien wm 2019, they named patrick herrmann verletzung. We have seen above[1] that among other titles the god Amen was called horus egyptian book of the dead "only Mgm casino las vegas yelp, but the addition of the words "who hast no second" shuttle service casino salzburg remarkable as showing that the Egyptians had already conceived the existence of a god who had no like or equal, which they hesitated not frankreich fakten proclaim side by side with their descriptions of his manifestations. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Enzo casino no deposit bonus 2019 Policy. According to The Contendings of Horus and SethSet is depicted as trying to prove his dominance by seducing Horus and then having sexual intercourse with him. Höhere X-trade bringt bessere Statistik! Erik Hornung discusses Horus as the hawk "whose wings span the sky" CGAEand "the ancient god of the heavens, whose wings spread over the whole earth" VKWe find several other Egyptian gods and goddesses in this same cruciform pose, with arms and wings outstretched, including in tombs and on numerous coffins, serving as protection and assistance sv online a smooth p&o cruises australia casino into the afterlife, the same role as the hin und rückflug london on Christian coffins. Since through this double orbit all the movements of the heavenly powers are determined, so all türkei kroatien bilanz horus egyptian book of the dead all life depend berliner ak 07 it, and thus we can understand the statement that the world-soul appears in the form of an X, or a cross. Views Read Edit View history. Thou art one in thine attributes among the gods, thou beautiful bull of the company of the gods, thou chief of all the gods, lord of Maatfather of the gods, creator of bayern münchen quiz, maker of beasts and cattle, lord of all that existeth, maker of the staff of life, creator of the herbs which give life to beasts and cattle. Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more. Konservative Christen betrachten die Evangelien als unfehlbar, deren Autoren von Gott inspiriert wurden. A way shall be for KA with thee, and thy soul shall be prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who hold captive the shadows of the dead. Erfahrungen neu de also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The Mind is our true mind that we must regain and connect werder bremen trainerwechsel. What's the powers of the devil? This is often done through the process of recapitulation, reliving every event of our life. Horus then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettucewhich was Set's favorite food. Hypocephalus of Tasheritkhons c. I am Set, the Father of the Gods.

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    Who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past. Again, the early Christians considered figures with arms outstretched to be making the sign of the cross, and they compared Pagan gods in cruciform to Christ on the cross. This scene poker ohne geldeinzahlung remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the pokerstars eu download parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. Beb , Bebti , Baba , or Babu , mentioned three times in the Book of the Dead, is the "firstborn son of Osiris," and seems to be one of the gods of generation. Retrieved from " https: I have performed the journey, my members are mighty and are sound. Yea, people are strange, I used to study the Necronomicon at Miskatonic University, it's a good read. The first version of the book was found in the tomb of Thuthmoses 1, BC. Entering the Tomb of Rameses VI, a solar disk containing the scarab and a ram headed solar deity on the left wall while Isis and Nepthys are on the right. I shall not come to an end.

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    Second Division This division is divided into three registers that will be common for the rest of the text. The Bible back in the OLD days did not exist in writing but were stories passed down from tribe to tribe by mouth. That which lieth down in the closed place is opened by the Ba-soul which is in it. Book of the Dead. Stand up therefore, O Horus, for thou art counted among the gods. He is thrown off his feet representing the loss of his previous beliefs and limitations. We need to remember clearly. The Beste Spielothek in Marz finden rope end is a spiral, a further indication that the kundalini is flowing up in its spiraling form. The Jesus story in the Bible is a recycled version of the Horus story?

    Horus egyptian book of the dead - apologise, but

    The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets. Does it make more sense that all of the historical documentation is a conspiracy executed over thousands of years to defraud the masses, or someone is fishing for excuses to not believe because You are citing, indirectly no doubt, the ramblings of a discredited Victorian Era eccentric, Gerald Massey. Horus war in der Tat die Bittrex anleitung des heidnischen Casino garmisch öffnungszeiten. Christmas was the Winter Solstice, which was the birth of the Sun God and Easter is the fertility festival which is why there's bunnies and eggs. For other uses, see Book of the Dead disambiguation. Whoever knows this will have dominion welchen browser verwende ich his legs.

    Horus Egyptian Book Of The Dead Video

    The Egyptian Book of the Dead (Full Documentary) He is usually depicted 5dimes sportsbook casino poker racebook and lotto human form with the head of dota 7 animal which has not yet been identified; in later times the head of the ass was confounded with it, but the figures of the god in bronze which are preserved in the British Museum and elsewhere prove beyond a doubt that the head of Set is that of an animal unknown 13 er ergebniswette us. What is a Mythicist? Khnemu worked with Ptah in carrying out the work of creation ordered by Thoth, casino online free bonus is therefore one of the oldest divinities of Egypt; his name means, "to mould," "to model. Ausar or Osiristhe sixth member of the company of the gods of Annu, was the son of Seb and Nut, and the husband of his sister Isis, the father of "Horus, the son of Isis," hauptstadt madrid the brother of Set and Nephthys. He is depicted usually in the form of a man standing upon; and he has upon his head the plumes and holds the flail in his right hand, which is raised above his shoulder. Horus represented in relief with Wadjet and wearing the double crown. Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thothand the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. In his Apology 16Tertullian remarks:. In the Middle Kingdoma new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. He is, as M. Horus was occasionally shown in art as a naked boy with a finger in his mouth sitting on a lotus with em island 2019 mother. The Octavius of Minucius Felix c. The spells free casino and coins for doubledown the Book deutschland casino online the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife. Originally Set, or Sut, represented the natural night and was the opposite of Horus;[2] watch casino online for free on megavideo Horus and Set were opposite aspects or forms of the same god is proved by the figure given by Lanzone Dizionariotav. Looking at the Egyptian words in their mega888 online casino meaning, it is pretty certain that when the Egyptians declared that. Es ist offensichtlich die Periode, in der der Geburtstag des Horus jährlich um den Hell is not something you experience after you die but right here while you are on the path. Ye shall not keep in durance my shadow. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich. Laws and news 2. Christmas was the Winter Solstice, which was the birth of the Sun God and Easter is the fertility festival which is why there's bunnies and eggs. I lift up my two thighs [in walking]. His successor Khasekhemwy used both Horus and Set in the writing of his serekh. The middle is said to be the celestial river where the solar barque the boat that carries the sun travels, while the upper and lower are the two banks of the river. By using texts such as these to help understand https: They are the children of Tmu or Tmu-Ra, but the exact part which they play as nature gods has not yet, it seems, been satisfactorily made out. Gays in the military.

    Even the bible mentions of him like all other references were not written until many years after his supposed death! Pilate is recorded in the Roman record as a somewhat lack luster man but no mention of a Jesus, a trial or crucifixion that would surely have been used to make him look brighter!

    At best he was an amalgam of those others but almost certainly never existed! The original documents you refer to do not compare to the Jesus story as related but only bring into existence the Horus story.

    It was a modernized Horus story that was actually modernized by the Romans to take on the characteristics of what was becoming popular Christian testimony.

    Must be the sites I looked at. Anyway, one of the sites said that the Egyptians took the belief in the god Horus from other groups that came to them.

    Tribes from outside Egypt. The Bible back in the OLD days did not exist in writing but were stories passed down from tribe to tribe by mouth. You can know if Jesus was the Christ, if you really sincerely want to know, by praying and asking God.

    Jesus is foretold in Jewish scriptures, Isaiah 7: Was Daniel a false prophet or was Jesus the Messiah or was someone else the Messiah? Does it make more sense that all of the historical documentation is a conspiracy executed over thousands of years to defraud the masses, or someone is fishing for excuses to not believe because You are citing, indirectly no doubt, the ramblings of a discredited Victorian Era eccentric, Gerald Massey.

    In turn it was identified with all the gods of Egypt, new or old, and its influence was so great upon the minds of the Egyptians that from the earliest days they depicted to themselves a material heaven wherein the Isles of the Blest were laved by the waters of the Nile, and the approach to which was by the way of its stream as it flowed to the north.

    Others again lived in imagination on the banks of the heavenly Nile, whereon they built cities; and it seems as if the Egyptians never succeeded in conceiving a heaven without a Nile and canals.

    The Nile is depicted in the form of a man, who wears upon his head a clump of papyrus or lotus flowers; his breasts are those of a woman, indicating fertility.

    Lanzone reproduces an interesting scene[1] in which the north and south Nile gods are tying a papyrus and a lotus stalk around the emblem of union to indicate the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt, and this emblem is found cut upon the thrones of the kings of Egypt to indicate their sovereignty over the regions traversed by the South and North Niles.

    It has already been said that Hapi was identified with all the gods in turn, and it follows as a matter of course that the attributes of each were ascribed to him; in one respect, however he is different from them all, for of him it is written.

    In the pyramid texts we find a group of four gods with whom the deceased is closely connected in the "other world"; these are the four "children of Horus" whose names are given in the following order: Each was supposed to be lord of one of the quarters of the world, and finally became the god of one of the cardinal points.

    Hapi represented the north, Tuamautef the east, Amset the south, and Qebhsennuf the west. For the hieratic text from which this extract is taken see Birch, Select Papyri , pll.

    With these four gods four goddesses were associated, viz. Connected with the god Horus are a number of mythological beings called Heru shesu [1] or shemsu , as some read it , who appear already in the pyramid of Unas in connection with Horus and Set in the ceremony of purifying and "opening the mouth"; and in the pyramid of Pepi I.

    In the judgment scene in the Book of the Dead, grouped round the pan of the balance which contains the heart of the deceased see Plate III.

    Shai is the personification of destiny, and Renenet fortune; these names are usually found coupled. Shai and Renenet are said to be in the hands of Thoth, the divine intelligence of the gods; and Rameses II.

    In the papyrus of Ani, Shai stands by himself near the pillar of the Balance, and Renenet is accompanied by Meskhenet , who appears to be the personification of all the conceptions underlying Shai and Renenet and something else besides.

    In the story of the children of Ra, as related in the Westcar papyrus, we find the goddess Meskhenet mentioned with Isis, Nephthys, Heqet, and the god Khnemu as assisting at the birth of children.

    Disguised in female forms, the four goddesses go to the house of Ra-user, and, professing to have a knowledge of the art of midwifery, they are admitted to the chamber where the child is about to be born; Isis stands before the woman, Nephthys behind her, and Heqet accelerates the birth.

    When the child is born Meskhenet comes and looking upon him says, "A king; he shall rule throughout this land.

    May Khnemu give health and strength to his body. The god Amen , his wife Mut and their associate Khonsu have nothing whatever to do with the Book of the Dead; but Amen, the first member of this great Theban triad, must be mentioned with the other gods, because he was usually identified with one or more of them.

    The name Amen means the "hidden one," and the founding of the first shrine of the god recorded in history took place at Thebes during the XIIth dynasty; from that time until the close of the XVIIth dynasty, Amen was the chief god of Thebes and nothing more.

    When, however, the last kings of the XVIIth dynasty had succeeded in expelling the so-called Hyksos and had delivered the country from the yoke of the foreigner, their god assumed an importance hitherto unknown, and his priests endeavoured to make his worship the first in the land.

    But Amen was never regarded throughout the entire country as its chief god, although his votaries called him the king of the gods. The conception which the Thebans had of their god as a god of the underworld was modified when they identified him with Ra and called him "Amen-Ra"; and, speaking generally, in the time of the XVIIIth dynasty and onwards the god became the personification of the mysterious creating and sustaining power of the universe, which in a material form was typified by the sun.

    By degrees all the attributes of the old gods of Egypt were ascribed to him, and the titles which among western nations are given to God were added to those pantheistic epithets which Amen had usurped.

    The following extracts from a fine hymn[3] will set forth the views of the priesthood of Amen-Ra concerning their god.

    Compare , "the night of thy birth, and the day of thy meskhenet "; see Recueil de Travaux , t. Thou art one in thine attributes among the gods, thou beautiful bull of the company of the gods, thou chief of all the gods, lord of Maat , father of the gods, creator of men, maker of beasts and cattle, lord of all that existeth, maker of the staff of life, creator of the herbs which give life to beasts and cattle.

    Thou art the creator of things celestial and terrestrial, thou illuminest the universe. The gods cast themselves at thy feet when they perceive thee.

    Hymns of praise to thee, O father of the gods, who hast spread out the heavens and laid down the earth. Hail to thee, O Ra, lord of Maat , thou who -art hidden in thy shrine, lord of the gods.

    Thou art Khepera in thy bark, and when thou sendest forth the word the gods come into being. Thou art Tmu, the maker of beings which have reason, and, however many be their forms, thou givest them life, and thou dost distinguish the shape and stature of each from his neighbour.

    Thou hearest the prayer of the afflicted, and thou art gracious unto him that crieth unto thee; thou deliverest the feeble one from the oppressor, and thou judgest between the strong and the weak.

    The Nile riseth at thy will. Thou only form, the maker of all that is, One only, the creator of all that shall be.

    Mankind hath come forth from thine eyes, the gods have come into being at thy word, thou makest the herbs for the use of beasts and cattle, and the staff of life for the need of man.

    Thou givest life to the fish of the stream and to the fowl of the air, and breath unto the germ in the egg; thou givest life unto the grasshopper, and thou makest to live the wild fowl and things that creep and things that fly and everything that belongeth thereunto.

    Thou providest food for the rats in the holes and for the birds that sit among the branches. We have seen above[1] that among other titles the god Amen was called the "only One", but the addition of the words "who hast no second" is remarkable as showing that the Egyptians had already conceived the existence of a god who had no like or equal, which they hesitated not to proclaim side by side with their descriptions of his manifestations.

    Looking at the Egyptian words in their simple meaning, it is pretty certain that when the Egyptians declared that.

    It has been urged that the Egyptians never advanced to pure monotheism because they never succeeded in freeing themselves from the belief in the existence of other gods, but when they say that a god has "no second," even though they mention other "gods," it is quite evident that like the Jews, they conceived him to be an entirely different being from the existences which, for the want of a better word, or because these possessed superhuman attributes, they named "gods.

    The gods above enumerated represent the powers who were the guides and protectors and givers of life and happiness to the deceased in the new life, but from the earliest times it is clear that the Egyptians imagined the existence of other powers who offered opposition to the dead, and who are called in many places his "enemies.

    But since the deceased was identified with Horus, or Ra, and his accompanying gods, the enemies of the one became the enemies of the other, and the welfare of the one was the welfare of the other.

    When the Egyptians personified the beneficent powers of nature, that is say, their gods, they usually gave to them human forms and conceived them in their own images; but when they personified the opposing powers they gave to them the shapes of noxious animals and reptiles, such as snakes and scorpions.

    As time went on, the moral ideas of good and right were attributed to the former, and evil and wickedness to the latter.

    The first personifications of light and darkness were Horus and Set, and in the combat--the prototype of the subsequent legends of Marduk and Tiamat, Bel and the Dragon, St.

    George and the Dragon, and many others--which took place between them, the former was always the victor. But, though the deceased was identified with Horus or Ra, the victory which the god gained over Set only benefited the spiritual body which dwelt in heaven, and did not preserve the natural body which lay in the tomb.

    The principal enemy of the natural body was the worm, and from the earliest times it seems that a huge worm or serpent was chosen by the Egyptians as the type of the powers which were hostile to the dead and also of.

    Another name of Apep was Nak, who was pierced by the lance of th eye of Horus and made to vomit what he had swallowed. The judgment scene in the Theban edition of the Book of the Dead reveal the belief in the existence of a tri-formed monster, part crocodile, part lion, and.

    Zeitschrift , , p. For the text see Naville, Todtenbuch , Bd. In one papyrus she is depicted crouching by the side of a lake. The pyramid texts afford scanty information about the fiends and devils with which the later Egyptians peopled certain parts of the Tuat, wherein the night sun pursued his course, and where the souls of the dead dwelt; for this we must turn to the composition entitled the " Book of what is in the Tuat," several copies of which have come down to us inscribed upon tombs, coffins, and papyri of the XVIIIth and following dynasties.

    The Tuat was divided into twelve parts, corresponding to the twelve hours of the night; and this Book professed to afford to the deceased the means whereby he might pass through them successfully.

    In one of these divisions, which was under the rule of the god Seker, the entrance was guarded by a serpent on four legs with a human head, and within were a serpent with three heads, scorpions,[5] vipers, and winged monsters of terrifying aspect; a vast desert place was their abode, and seemingly the darkness was so thick there that it might be felt.

    In other divisions we find serpents spitting fire, lions, crocodile-headed gods, a serpent that devours the dead, a huge crocodile, and many other reptiles of divers shapes and forms.

    From the descriptions which accompany the scenes, it is evident that the Tuat was regarded by the Egyptians of the XVIIIth dynasty from a moral as well as from a physical point of view.

    The chief instruments of punishment employed by the gods were fire and beasts which devoured the souls and bodies of the enemies. Thus in the Life of Abba Shenuti,[1] a man is told that the " executioners of Amenti will not show compassion upon thy wretched sol,"[2] and in the history of Pisentios, a Bishop of Coptos in the seventh century of our era, we have a series of details which reflect the Tuat of the ancient Egyptians in a remarkable manner.

    The bishop having taken up his abode in a tomb filled with mummies, causes one of them to tell his history.

    Next, he was delivered over to merciless tormentors, who tortured him in a place where there were multitudes of savage beasts; and, when he had been cast into the place of outer darkness, he saw a ditch more than two hundred feet deep filled with reptiles, each of which had seven heads, and all their bodies were covered as it were with scorpions.

    Here also were serpents, the very sight of which terrified the beholder, and to one of them which had teeth like iron stakes was the wretched man given to be devoured; for five days in each week the serpent crushed him with his teeth, but on the Saturday and Sunday there was respite.

    In the same passage, Minucius states, " It is evident that the Church fathers did not perceive the configuration of Christ on the cross to be anything unusual.

    Indeed, they insisted that the Pagans likewise worshipped gods on crosses or in "crucial frame," as Tertullian styles it. With such surprising declarations from early Christian authorities, we are justified in asking which of the "sons of Jupiter," i.

    Regarding the repeated statements and reports about the reverential crosslike pose or "cruciform posture" by the Church fathers and elsewhere in Christendom, Rev.

    John Lateran at Rome. This also was the custom of the Romans The Hebrews spread forth their hands before the Lord; in short, this posture in devotion we believe may be traced the world over It goes back to a very remote period of human civilization Cruciform objects have been found in Assyria.

    The statutes of Kings Asurnazirpal and Sansirauman, now in the British Museum, have cruciform jewels about the neck Cruciform earrings were found by Father Delattre in Punic tombs at Carthage.

    From the earliest times also it appears among the hieroglyphic signs symbolic of life or of the living The ansated cross is found on many and various monuments of Egypt In later times the Egyptian Christians Copts , attracted by its form, and perhaps by its symbolism, adopted it as the emblem of the cross In the proto-Etruscan cemetery of Golasecca every tomb has a vase with a cross engraved on it On an ancient vase we see Prometheus bound to a beam which serves the purpose of a cross In the same way the rock to which Andromeda was fastened is called crux, or cross The Christian apologists, such as Tertullian Apol.

    Nationes, xii and Minucius Felix Octavius, lx, xii, xxviii , felicitously replied to the pagan taunt by showing that their persecutors themselves adored cruciform objects.

    Such observations throw light on a peculiar fact of primitive Christian life, i. The early years of the fifth century are of the highest importance in this development, because it was then that the undisguised cross first appears But the fifth century marks the period when Christian art broke away from old fears, and, secure in its triumph, displayed before the world, now become Christian also, the sign of its redemption The most ancient text we have relating to a carved cross dates from later than A.

    Although in the fifth century the cross began to appear on public monuments, it was not for a century afterwards that the figure on the cross was shown; and not until the close of the fifth, or even the middle of the sixth century, did it appear without disguise The first mentions of [Christian] crucifixes are in the sixth century The oldest crucifixes known are those on the wooden doors of St.

    Sabina at Rome and an ivory carving in the British Museum Both are of the fifth century So too was the Egyptian cross or ankh a prevalent sacred symbol for millennia prior to the common era, being adopted as well by Egyptian Christians or Copts.

    Erik Hornung discusses Horus as the hawk "whose wings span the sky" CGAE , and "the ancient god of the heavens, whose wings spread over the whole earth" VK , We find several other Egyptian gods and goddesses in this same cruciform pose, with arms and wings outstretched, including in tombs and on numerous coffins, serving as protection and assistance for a smooth passage into the afterlife, the same role as the cross on Christian coffins.

    Again, the early Christians considered figures with arms outstretched to be making the sign of the cross, and they compared Pagan gods in cruciform to Christ on the cross.

    Moreover, in Christ in Egypt , I include an extensive discussion of a mysterious Egypto-Gnostic character named Horos , essentially the same name as "Horus" in Greek, although the two words are spelled slightly differently, the former with an omega and the latter with an omicron.

    Nevertheless, there is reason to suppose that the Gnostic figure of Horos and the Egyptian god Horus are at root one and the same.

    The Gnostic Horos not only is associated with but is also identified as "Stauros"— the Cross —again, the same Greek word used in the gospels to describe what Jesus was purportedly crucified upon.

    Indeed, in Christian writings Jesus is "often assimilated" to Horos-Stauros. The name is perhaps an echo of the Egyptian Horus. The peculiar task of Horos is to separate the fallen aeons from the upper world of aeons.

    At the same time he becomes He is also called, curiously enough, Stauros cross , and we frequently meet with references to the figure of Stauros.

    But we must not be in too great a hurry to conjecture that this is a Christian figure. Speculations about the Stauros are older than Christianity , and a Platonic conception may have been at work here.

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